Latin name : orhidee
Common name : orhidee
Other names :
Orchids are herbaceous, perennial, with a huge number of species, nearly 20,000, which originated almost all over the globe (South America, and Central Asia, Malay Archipelago and Madagascar etc.) Only except the polar regions. The largest number of orchids are found, but in the tropics. After their lifestyle, they are divided into:
Land that used to, growing in soil, with rhizomes and tubers (Cypripedium, Calanthe, Bletilla) originating in southern Africa, regions with moderate heat of North and South America, Europe, Australia etc..
Epiphyte with aerial roots exposed to air and rain. From humid tropical regions, they still find the marshes, meadows, mountain slopes. They live on other plants, but do not take food from them.
Most cultivated species are epiphytes.
Saprophytic, a small group of orchids that live among the plants rotted entirely underground, except white flower stems appearing without chlorophyll, above ground level. Neottia nidus? avis part of this group. Her tuber grows as a bird's nest, no leaves, only a few scales.
It is known and another division of orchids:
Monopodial orchids (phalaenopsis, Angraecum, Vanilla), with a central stem, right, masked by frunzela growing accustomed wrapped on both sides and the young roots air starting at the leaves, fitting to a point.
Orchids simpodiale with a pseudobulb (food and water tank). At the top there is a sheath that protects pseudobulbs bud.
Orchids are generally bisexual. The flowers consist of two circles having 3 petals colored outer circle formend calyx or sepals and corolla inner circle, are solitary, arranged in racemes, panicles and spikes. Leaves are simple, with full margins, without petiole.
Orchid Propagation is by division, cuttings, seeds and pseudobulbs. Seeds are formed by plant pollination mothers meet this goal. Embryo development, seed formation and maturation capsule lasts longer required (between 12 and 18 months, in general, fruit maturation).
The capsule is gathered when it becomes yellow-brown, mark baker to put in a sterile pack, where he will hold to sowing. It is best to sow as soon after it was harvested.
Orchid seeds, unlike other species of flower seeds, not nourishing tissue and therefore need to be added, during germination, proper nutrients.
In nature, a mushroom mycelium absent nutritive tissue function priests. Almost every kind of orchid has a variety of fungal species, living in symbiosis with it and micelles mixed with orchid roots.
For sowing put a pot or a small container with a substrate, as is used for normal culture. The upper layer of the substrate is put some roots in old root orchid of the same variety of seed to be sown.
Above the dish so prepared is Astene in a fabric after it has been boiled, taking care that the edges are pushed them on the inner walls of the vessel down so it is taut above the substrate. Sprinkle seeds on fabric. To ensure a constant moisture brackets are inserted in pots of water. The water in the stand up in the substrate and, thus, the fabric gets humidity.
From roots to grow at about 25 ° C, mycelium, which then pass through the fabric which is filled seed. In this way come in contact and begin germination, provided that the temperature and humidity are maintained to be high.
Germination vessels will be protected from direct sunlight.
Watering is best to do this by absorbing bottom, taking care that vessels under the pots, the water is maintained.
The large cloud or winter weather, the plants, in order to cover the needs of water, thanks to the humidity.
The seeds should be fed to grow. Needed fertilizing liquid.
Transplantation seed is 6-9 months.
Terrestrial orchids are grown in pots or in pots, and the epiphytes in baskets made of wire or slats, for which the land of ferns, sphagnum, charcoal etc. the roots loosely covered with moss.
For successful culture requires the creation of conditions of temperature, moisture, aeration, etc.. Also, substrate composition will be similar to that found in natural conditions. Be taken as some are epiphytic plants and, according to these features, perform orchid culture.
Abuindenta Light in orchid culture is, more than anything, a necessary condition for better flowering.
However, they are remitted to the direct influence of sunlight that can cause leaf burn.
The seats shall be placed in well-lit large bulbous plants, with rough leaves. (Cattleya, Laelia, Epidendrum, etc.). plants with soft leaves, erboase (Cypripedium, Calanthe etc.) can be located in places less bright.
Avoid burning leaves because direct sunlight penetration and maintaining the temperature and humidity in the room is possible by using shading. This will be differentiated by species, incepend from March to September.
Species have fleshy leaves, stems too thick rough and require a lower shading (Cattleya, Laelia, etc.) and the soft leafy, juicy (Cypripedium), require careful shading.
For good use of light and shadow, depending on the time, we use darker curtains.
Maintaining a constant and sufficient moisture can be achieved by spraying the plants with water. The best water for watering plants and, especially, the orchid is the water from rain or snowmelt runoff.
One can also use water from ponds or rivers, provided they do not contain lime or industrial waste.
Strict rules about watering is almost impossible to issue, because often it is necessary to appreciate after umzeala soil if necessary to wet plants.
However, it may indicate some guiding principles.
In terms of water requirement, it depends on the season, Biolage peculiarities of different groups of orchids. Thus, plants with fleshy leaves and bulbs need less water in winter (Cattleya, Laelia, Dendrobium, Oncidium, etc.) do not form bulbous plants such as Cypripedium, Phalaenopsis, Vanda and so on, need moisture umiforma the substrate during the year and only winter somehow lower. There are some species of orchids that shakes the leaves (Thun, Calanthe etc.). in vegetation and intensive, they require heavy splashing, which as yellowing and falling leaves fall. After the loss to the formation of new leaf shoots and roots, the plants will dry you. Leaf spraying is done, especially in the morning and day, because at night, the leaves are dried. The spraying will take care of the plants might not be current.
Humidity should not negrijata plant or during rest, but must be adjusted according to the temperature. On chilly days, posomarate air humidity must be lower than on clear days, sunny.
Regarding substrate for epiphytic orchids recommend 2 parts Osmunda, 1 part sphagnum moss.
For terrestrial and terrestrial orchids: 1 ½ parts beech leaves, 1 part sphagnum, ½ part fermented cow dung.
If epiphytic orchids, the substrate is placed in pots or baskets.
An important role in the growth and it has drainage deavoltarea orchids because it contributes to a better aeration and avoid standing water in pots, which is particularly harmful for them. Drainage layer is recommended to fill about 1/3 of the pot in which the plant grows. The drainage can use small pieces, charcoal etc.
An important work in orchid culture is transpalntarea. It is only if the plant blooms grow weak and if the vessel is overcrowded if you plant roots are bare or have separated.
Transplant surgery is done after flowering and after [a period of rest, which coincides with the emergence of new shoots and new roots.
Species or varieties with bushy and diffuse roots will not transplant than if the pot broke because they break very easily.
Osata with transplanters, it makes sure that the old roots, bulbs dry, without leaves to shrivel away.
The epiphytic orchids, plant roots will not be deep, but will be fixed close to the surface of the nutrient medium and the vessel must be chosen not too large compared to the plant.
The most appropriate for transplantation is spring because the plants before the summer season in order to develop new roots.
Transplantation orhodeelor ??much harm their development, as many roots can hurt. More or less roots rotting flesh very easily. Therefore, transp [lanteaza, always, when the plant has filled the pot and repeat this as often, prefer vessels larger (more flat than tall). When transplanting, with a sharp knife remove the diseased part of the roots. Separated plant must stop at each side a sprig with leaves well developed.
The soil should be moist at first, because in the first period after transplantation is not wet. Spraying is done only on the leaves, not ground substrate. In summer it overshadows.
In some species, as Laelia, Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, etc.., Roots adhere to the pot or baskets. Therefore, the transplant will take care in advance, to come off the ship with a knife.
The bulbous orchids, eg a plnata 6 bulbs, two will be moved and 4 will remain in the old boat. Vessel walls between bulbs and leave a space of 1 or 2 fingers for new bulbs to be able to grow over the next two years.
In general, transplanting orchids is best to do than in the above cases, and no earlier than 2-3 years.
Pests. Among these species of animal pests, the main are:
Red spider is the most widely spread, causing extensive damage by puncturing and sucking the cell juice.
It lives in colonies and, therefore, is very dangerous. Attacked leaves fade, curl the edges su then usuca.transmiterea pests on a plant to another is done by insects or their movement.
Fighting is done by repeated spraying with acaricide attacked plnatelor
Tripsii, small insects, thin, yellow or blackish brown, have many generations per year. Therefore very dangerous.
Fighting is done with organic products, fungicides or watering plants.
Head lice are controlled greenhouse plants as tripsii.
Shelled snails feed on plant tissues.
The attack takes place only at night and in the morning
Fighting is done only on cloudy days, and on clear days, evening and morning with powdered lime or ashes etc..
Isosoma orchidsarum, very dangerous insect, brought with the first orchid lay their eggs on young shoots are eaten by larvae inside.
Infested plants are treated with insecticides.
Pseudococcus adonidum cause serious damage and it's hard to break because he lives in the leaves of young shoots and sometimes even roots. Plants immersed in a solution Phosdrin, 70cm3 at 100 l water.
Among the diseases, the most common is withering and drying. This attack is caused by the fungus Fusarium and Verticillium.
The disease is transmitted through infected soil and material multiplier.
It is controlled by treating the soil with steam and chemically.
Bacteria spread molds occur when there is too much humidity and too little ventilation .. prevention is, in this case more effective than fighting because orchids are very sensitive to copper watering dishes.
Because bacteria can rot the leaves and stems just above the soil.
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